FLNR ION SOURCES HISTORY JINR
Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia

 

Vladimir Kutner (1945-1998)
         Vladimir B. Kutner belonged to the generation of scientists whose talents and dedication made possible FLNRs numerous scientific achievements and who constantly developed and improved its accelerator facilities. His activities extended into designing and constructing new ion sources and are associated with major discoveries in the field of nuclear fission and synthesis of new elements. His considerable talent for experimentation, his astounding intuition and daring in setting the sights for future research, his flare for a neat analysis of any conglomeration of experimental data, his profound understanding of the essence of physical phenomena, his extraordinary enthusiasm and perseverance, his social conscientiousness and public concern made him an outstanding researcher and his contribution to Russias science truly significant. Each of his 150 publications is distinguished by the novel and creative approach and faultless procedure. Dr. Kutners activities were also appreciated outside Russias scientific community. His membership in the GSI Scientific Council (Germany) and the Programme Committee of International Conferences on Ion Sources is convincing testimony of his recognition.

         Vladimir B. Kutner was born on 30 January, 1945 in Archangelsk (North Russia) into a large working-class family. From 1952 to 1962, he attended a comprehensive school in Bolshaya Volga (now part of the City of Dubna). From 1962 to 1963, he worked as a film projectionist at a Workers Club. From 1963 to 1968 he studied physics at Lobachevsky University in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod). In his last year at the University he also taught physics in a secondary school in Gorky region. After graduation from the University he started working at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Qualified in nuclear physics theory, he later acquired extensive expertise in experimentation techniques and became proficient in atomic and plasma physics, as well as in acceleration technology. Primarily, Dr. Kutner was involved in developing sources of multiple charge ions at the FLNR.

         In 1968-69, on Professor G. Flerovs recommendation, V.B.Kutner in collaboration with A.S.Pasiuk conducted research eventually demonstrating feasibility of producing intense (above 100 mk) beams of Xe12+ and Xe 13+ ions. That was important in choosing the final design version of the new U-400 accelerator.

         During 1969 - 1974, he participated in a series of works which resulted for the first time in modern worlds practice in the production of phosphorus, calcium and zinc ions and their acceleration at the cyclotron. It promoted the development of a new line of research in heavy ion physics.

         In the course of works performed in 1974-1984, physicotecnical conditions of discharge regimes were studied and realized which lead to a substantial increase in the multi-charge ion yield from the cyclotron arc source and to achieving the high-charge state of ions up to Xe 15+. Methods of increasing the intensity and charge of ion beams were developed with the use of the discharge with Ta cathodes. As a result of theoretical studies, the known methods used for the description, modeling and calculating the processes of ion formation and losses in arc ion sources were generalized. Later this approach was also used for calculating physical processes in ion sources with the electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR).

         In 1980 V.B.Kutner was appointed Head of the ion source group. In this capacity he demonstrated considerable organizing abilities, integrity and responsibility of a demanding but fair leader.

         After obtaining his candidates degree in 1983, V.B.Kutner devoted his major efforts to research in the field of designing, constructing and study of high efficiency and intensity ion sources and injectors for the heavy ion cyclotron complex that was being built at the JINR, as well as for the systems of axial injection of ions into the cyclotron.

         V.B.Kutner made a valuable contribution into developing techniques of producing multiple charge ions not only at the JINR, but at other research centers of the USSR. It was with his participation that arc multiple charge ion sources were introduced at A.F.Ioffe Physical Engineering Institute (Leningrad), Nuclear Physics Research Institute of Moscow State University (Moscow), Kharkov Physical Engineering Institute, the Institute of Nuclear Investigations of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (Kiev). The authors of a series of investigations in heavy ion acceleration at the U-240 cyclotron in Kiev received a State Award from the Ukrainian Government in 1985.

         In 1985 V.B.Kutner was elected Head of the FLNRs Department of Ion Sources and Vacuum Technology.

         In 1987, a system of axial ion injection was developed and launched at the U-200 cyclotron. In the process of creating and putting into operation the external injection system much experience in the calculation, modeling and designing was accumulated and the principal units of the system were worked through.

         In 1988, a first model version of the ERC with a pumping frequency of 2.45 GHz was put into operation, and the first nitrogen ions were produced. The works on the creation of a full-scale prototype of the ion source DECRIS-14-1with a high pumping frequency of 14 GHz were started.

         By 1992, the main characteristics of the first prototype of the ion source DECRIS-14-1 were studied, and intense beams of multi-charged ions of different gases produced. It was concluded that ERC ion sources should be used at all the FLNR cyclotrons as urgently as possible. For the realization of this programme, the ECR ion source and a system for axial injection for the cyclotron MC-400 were designed and later manufactured. In 1994, the ECR ion source DECRIS-14-2 was manufactured and in early 1995 it was mounted at the cyclotron MC-400. The results obtained in test experiments were confirmed in the process of work of the new ion source at the cyclotron. The intensity of nitrogen and oxygen ion beams was at the level characteristic of the best ion sources in the world.

         At the same time it was decided that the unique experience with ECR ion sources at GANIL (France) should be used in the creation of the new generation ion source, specially for the FLNR (JINR), so that physicists of the JINR member-states could have at their disposal beams of record parameters.

         In 1993-1995, in the framework of the collaboration with GANIL a second ion source ECR-4M was created. In 1996, it was mounted and put into operation at the cyclotron U-400. The U-400 cyclotron occupies a special place in the realization of the FLNR scientific programme, it is a basic facility providing the synthesis of nuclei far from the line of stability and study of their properties. Of exceptional importance was the production of high-intensity 48Ca ion beams. In the process of creating a technology for this, a number of interesting ideas were implemented and some new and original solutions found. The obtained intensity of the 48Ca ion beam was a record one and significantly (by more than an order of magnitude) surpassed all the known results on the acceleration of 48Ca ions produced at different laboratories of the world. The efficiency of the 48Ca ion beam production was increased more than a hundred times with the new injector instead of the internal arc ion source. As a result of this, long-term experiments on the synthesis of elements 112, 114, 115, 116 and 118 became feasible.

         The experience accumulated in the development of ECR ion sources at the FLNR allowed launching and realization of joint international projects. In 1995, a contract was made with VINCA (Belgrade, Yugoslavia) for the development and manufacturing an injector of multi-charged ions on the basis of an ECR ion source. In 1997, the ion source DECRIS-14-3 which later got its own name mVINIS was assembled in Belgrade, and ion beams of record for that time intensity were produced.

         In 1998, the FLNR started compiling the Technical Assignment for constructing the DC-72 Cyclotron at the Cyclotron Center of Slovak Republic in Bratislava. In this project V. B. Kutner was in charge of a complex of light and heavy ion sources. Sadly, he was not to complete this work.

         Vladimir Kutner was known for his involvement in communal life, much of his time and efforts were devoted to various social activities. While at school, in 1960 he joined the Youth Komsomol Organization and later became Secretary of his school branch organization. At the University he was also elected Secretary of the branch organization at the Department of Physics. Working at the JINR, he was elected Secretary for the JINR branch on a full-time basis from 1970 to 1973. In 1971 he was also elected a member of the Board at the Dubna branch orgnization. In 1972 he joined the Communist Party. For his social activities V. B. Kutner was awarded Honor Credentials from the Dubna Communist Party Organization, from the Central Committee of the Youth Komsomol Organization, as well as from its Moscow and Dubna Committees. He was also awarded a Badge for winning the Social Emulation Drive by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Council Ministers of the USSR, Central Council of the Trade-Unions and the Central Committee of the Youth Komsomol Organization. In 1997 he was awarded a medal In honour of Moscows 850th Anniversary).

(translated by Marina Morozova, FLNR)

 
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